Limited medical equipment on space craft makes medical care in space a real challenge. Ordinary problems must be dealt with, as well as problems related to the unique environment of space. As NASA plans for new crewed exploration missions, beyond low earth orbit, telemedicine support will be limited, and medical evacuation to earth will no longer be possible. To address this problem, LLNL and NASA Ames Research Center are developing a novel diagnostic instrument to help provide medical care on deep space missions. The technology consists of a blood analysis system, based on microfluidics, together with a breath analysis system that uses carbon nanotube sensors. The technology is designed to support future missions to the moon and Mars, and it is expected to be used for terrestrial medicine as well, in a variety of arenas where medical resources are limited.